教宗庇护十二世《宗徒之长》通谕

中文原文

教宗庇护十二世《宗徒之长》通谕   

一九五八年六月二十九日

致 服膺
宗座之中国总主教,主教,及各教区
首长,神父与诸教友。
教宗庇护第十二祝
可敬的诸位神昆暨可爱的神子们安泰,及宗座遐福!
教会对华所怀希望 
在宗徒之长的陵墓旁,在庄严的梵蒂冈大殿内,三十二年前,不朽的前任教宗庇护第十一,亲自祝圣了“中华主教中之先荐之果”(一)。授与了他们司铎的全 权。当时典礼隆重,教宗情动于心,曾向他们说:“可敬的神昆!你们来朝见了伯多禄,你们于今从伯多禄领受了权杖,你们拿着这枝权杖,去为传教奔波,去为收 集羊群。伯多禄今天亲热地拥抱了你们,他对你们的同胞宣传福音真理,抱着很大的希望”(二)
可敬的神昆,可爱的神子们!在 你们本国眼前多难的时期中,前任教宗所说的话,余音尤缭绕在我们心中。当日伟大的前任教宗所说的希望,于今并未成空,并未消散。在第一批中华主教之后,伯 多禄藉着自己的继任者,又委派了大批的主教和福音使者,以治理天主所喜爱的这些羊群。他们的传教事业,虽在连年的困苦艰难中,仍日见兴盛。当我们在中国建 立教会圣统制时,我们心中也曾感到很大的喜乐,且抱有很大的希望:因为我们看见宣传福音之路,日见开放。
教难开始颁发文告 
很不幸,曾几何时,天地变色,乌云弥漫,你们的教区,即连久已发达的教区,都开始堕入了痛苦的日子里!我们看见了大批传教士,其中有许多传教心火热盛的 总主教和主教被逐出了中国,我们并见了圣座的公使也被无理驱逐。我们又见了许多主教、神父、修士、修女、男女教友、被捕被禁,受刑受苦。
我们不得不发出沉重的心声,提出抗议;遂在一九五二年元月十八日,颁发了“我们切愿声明”通谕(三)。在通谕里,我们为了爱护真理,为了克尽我们的职 责,曾剀切声明:公教对于任何民族,皆不能视为外国教,更不能视为某国的仇敌。反之,公教爱护每个民族,情同慈母,既不想追求世物,而只求引导人们的心灵 归向天主。我们并指出:传教士出生的国家虽不同,但绝不为一个国家服务,而只是为了同一的爱德所驱使,一心一德,宣扬天主的教会;他们的工作不是赘瘤,也 不是害物,而是有意而且是紧要的;因为他们在传教方面给予了中国本籍的适当圣职人员以莫大的助力。
过了两年,我们在一九五 四年十月七日,又颁发了“致中华人民”通谕(四),对于所加给中国公教人士的冤枉,予以驳辩;我们特别声明,公教信友,爱国爱民,绝不后人,亦绝不能后 人。当时在你们国内,有人推行所谓的“三自运动”,我们凭着为普世教会导师的职权,在通谕里郑重劝告:任何公教人士绝不能赞助这种理论,或由这理论所发生 的后果:因为按发起人的目的,这运动是为分化教会,破坏教会应有的团结。
公教人士坚忍不屈 
于今我们举目东望心弦愈紧,看见你们国内的教会近年来处境更为恶劣,然而你们在这日久天长的困难中,你们的信德仍旧屹立不动,你们爱慕救主和他教会的热 忱,仍旧始终不懈;在这一点上,我们的心在痛苦中获得了莫大的欣慰。因为你们在各方面,仍旧继续不断的表示出你们信德的坚忍,显露出你们爱德的热诚,你们 的这种豪举,虽然为世人所知晓的不多,但天主将来必要一一赏以永福之报。
爱国会传播的谬论 
但是,我们有责还应当痛心地公开说明,事实的演变,在你们中,因了阴谋的毒计,便走向了下坡,以致我们以前所指责的假说谬论,似乎已经横行到了极点,造成了莫大的祸害。
因为在你们国内,曾以一种秘密的计划,成立了一个组织,名为“爱国会”,想尽办法勒令公教人士,一并加入。
据公开的报道:此爱国会的宗旨,是为在爱国爱教的前提下,将公教的圣职人员和信友们团结起来,以提倡爱国精神,发展国际和平,并为协助巩固,并发扬在你 们中所立的社会主义,并与政府合作,尽力拥护政府政策,以及所谓的宗教自由。然而,这种组织,虽可在爱国爱民,谋求和平的普通口号下,蒙蔽一般朴实的愚 民,但显而易见的是:其目的尽在于努力完成其既定而又害人的阴谋。
爱国会的真正目标 
其实,爱国会是假借爱国的美名来驱使公教人士渐渐接受无神唯物主义的理论,进而否认天主,于唾弃宗教的原则。并且爱国会也假借保卫和平的美名,接受了敌 方所捏造的谣言与罪名,并加以宣传,以控诉圣职人员,攻击主教,攻击圣座,诬陷他们怀有帝国主义的野心,一心专务剥削弱小民族,以固有的成见来敌视中华人 民。
爱国会,又宣称在宗教事务上应享有各种自由,以便利于政教合作的进行;其实,这种口号的真正目的,完全是置圣教会的权 利于不顾,使教会完全隶属于政权之下。爱国会并促使自己的会员对于驱逐传教士的命令,对于主教、神父、修士、修女,以及不在少数的男女信友的非法监禁的命 令,都应加以赞成;并且对于长期阻止合法神长执行职权的非法处置,也应接受;对于反对圣教会至一至公,并反对教会圣统制的谬论,也应附和;并对于唆使信 友,神父违抗法定神长,离间教会团体,断绝圣座关系之种种阴谋,都该照行。
爱国会的迫人方法 
并且,以爱国爱民自居的爱国教会,为了加速传播上述的恶毒理论,为了更容易逼人接受,遂施行各种方法,甚至压迫威吓,亦在所不惜,一面在报章杂志上大肆 宣传,一面连串地召集会议,用尽恐吓,诱惑,欺骗的方法,驱使一般不欲参加的人参加集会,如有人在集会中胆敢发言,辩护真理,则群起而攻之,加以反政府, 反新社会的罪名。
此外,尚有所谓的学习,迫使学员吸取并接受骗人的学说。甚至司铎,修士,修女,修生,以及各界年龄的男女 信友,都被迫参与,在这种学习会议中,整天整周,甚至整月不息,继续听讲,继续讨论,终至使人理智麻木,意志失调,乃至为一种心理力所压制,被迫声明信 服。此种声明,既已失去了思索的自由,何具人性价值之有!更不必提说那些千方百计恐吓人心的方法:私下的欺骗,公开的恐吓,被迫的“悔过书”,“思想改造 所”,“公审”等等,甚至连年老可敬的主教,也被污蔑地拉到“公审”的场所里去。
对于这种蹂躏天主子女的神圣自由和侵害人性根本权利的暴政,全球天主教的同道兄弟,以及全球的正直人士,不能不同我们一齐,同声呼吁,抗议这种损害世人良心的举动。
公教人士爱国之道 
这些罪恶既是借爱国的美名所造成的,我们在此不得不再向人们唤起注意:爱国原是圣教会的一端道理,圣教会不断地教会每个信友,应诚心爱护自己的国家,并 且劝导他们,在不违反本性和神律之下,应服从本国政府,并勉励他们尽力协助国家的进步,使本国在和平秩序之中,真正日趋繁荣。圣教会而且也不怕烦劳,不断 地向教会的子女反复讲明救主所立的金科玉律:”天主的,应归还天主,恺撒的,应归还恺撒“(五)这条金科玉律,明明定断了在教会和国家的真正利益间,绝不 会,亦绝不能发生冲突。
但是我们在此应当强调一点:就是既然公教人士应按良心的义务,向恺撒——政府满全一切应尽的责任, 恺撒——政府却不能因此在不属于自己的权限,而在属于天主的权限的事务上,要求国民的服从。尤其在政府劫夺天主至上的权威时,在强迫信友违背自己的责任 时,在迫胁信友与统一的教会和合法的神长脱离时,政府绝不能向信友要求服从。在上述情形下,公教人士,唯有毅然不屈,应如圣伯多禄以及别位宗徒们答复第一 批迫害教会的人说:”人应服从天主胜过服从人“(六)
人类和平的真意义 
霸占爱国美名为己有的爱国会人员,为了推行拓展自己的任务,往往放言侈谈和平,敦劝公教人士以尽力保卫和平为己任。这种言词,外表看来,言之有理,持之 有故,似无可非议之处,因为世上哪有比为和平奔走的人更受人钦佩呢?然而,可敬的神昆,可爱的神子们!你们知道很清楚,所谓的和平,并非只是空谈,不是形 式,更不是投机而杂造的和平烟雾,口谈和平,身行斗计,不但不合与真正的和平意义,反令人彼此相怨,彼此相恨,彼此成仇。而真正的和平,是应建筑在号称” 和平之王“,(七)所训的正义和爱德之上的,圣教会所虔心祝祷建成的真正和平,乃是稳固的、平等的、有秩序的,使全球人民、家庭与民族,在保障私人权利, 尤其在尊重至高上主威权之下,藉借互相友爱、互相合作的联系,团结一致。
圣座尊重国人希望 
圣教会在一心期待这种民族间的和平共存之下,常祝愿每个民族,都能取得自己应有的地位。圣教会自来对你们本国的国运,绝没有怀有不友好的态度,前任教宗 已经祝福你们本国说:”中华国民应有之希望及权利,皆得(列强)完全认可。夫以中华人口之众,超越世界任何民族之上,文化最古,且曾有伟大光荣之历史,只 要追求正道与仁义,则来日发展,诚未可量也“(八)。
任意圈限教宗权利 
可是,按照电台广播的消息,根据报章登载的言论,有人——可惜!甚至连圣职人员中,也竟有怀疑或指责圣座对于你们祖国怀有恶意。
这般人士既敢对圣座怀有冤枉与污蔑的信念,遂又敢大胆任意圈限教会最高导师的权限,主张凡是关于社会经济问题,公教人士可以对圣座所颁发的训示与所定的 原则置之不顾。这种主张,荒谬邪曲,任人一看便知。在几年前,我们曾向多位主教神昆讲过:”圣教会的权利,绝不像一般人士所想象的,只是限于纯粹圣教事务 之内。圣教会的权利,乃是伸展到自然律全部范围之内。凡是自然律训诲,自然律解释,自然律执行,只要和伦理发生关系,视为伦理的基础,皆隶属圣教会的权 利。因为按照天主上智的措置,遵守自然律,乃是人趋向超行之道。在这条道上,圣教会则是使人趋向超性的向导与警卫“(九)。这端道理,我们先任教宗圣庇护 六世,在一九一二年九月二十四日所颁发的”一项特别“通谕里,也曾说过:”公教信友的一切行动,在伦理方面是善是恶,即对于自然律和神律是向是背,完全应 听圣教会的裁判,完全属于圣教会的统治“(十)。
上面所提到的那般人士,既然任意圈限了圣座的权利,并标为主张,遂一方面 在口头上再三声明,愿意在他们所谓的信仰事务和当守的教规上,服从教宗;而另一方面却狂妄放肆,竟敢拒绝圣座明白确定的指示和训令,声言圣座所发出的指示 和训令,暗中含有政治目的,似乎在幕后要危害他们的国家。
自造选圣主教权利 
在此,我们不得不提及一项严重的事件,即裂教的先兆。这项事件,使我们作万民之父,作信友总牧的心肠,遭受了极深的痛苦,有不可言宣的悲哀。有般自称爱 国的激烈份子,近月来,尽力大肆宣传一种自造的权利,声言教友有自动选举主教的权利。他们自称这种选举为目前刻不容缓之举,因为应急于设法照顾信友之精神 生活,并应早日将教区交付政府所同意的人去治理。这般政府同意的人士。无疑地,即是那些不拒绝共产主义的旨意与政策的人士。
并且,据我们所知道的,已经举行了几次这种非法的选举;而且更有甚者,竟敢违抗圣座所发给当事人的严明训令,公然给一些神职人员授予主教职品。
圣教会的真正统制 
面对这种破坏教会纪律和教会统一的大恶,我们感觉责无旁贷,只有再加劝告众人,这种主张与我主耶稣基督所立的教会的根本,即教会的教理和原则,正相抵触。
圣教法典上,律有明文:为评断一个圣职人员是否有适合主教职位的资格,完全属于圣座(第三百三十一条第三款)(十一);又规定主教应由罗马教宗自由选任 (第三百二十九条第二款。)(十二)就在某时某地选任主教,可以有别的私人或团体参加,为使这种方式合法,都由圣座因着特别情形,在指定的条件下,以明文 将这等特权,授予某人或某团体。由此可见,凡未经圣座选任或批准的主教,或而违抗圣座明令而选任和祝圣的主教。不能有任何治理教会和训导教会的权利;因为 主教权利的来源,必定要经过罗马教宗。我们在“妙身”通谕中曾经这样训告说。“圣教司牧……在各自所有的指定羊群用基督的名义养育统治。然而司牧 并不是人人独立,因为他们应当按法定方式服属教宗。司牧虽具有统治权,教宗所有者,直接来自耶稣定的神律;主教所有者,也来自同一神律,然应由继圣伯多禄 位的教宗赋与。因此,不单是普通教友,即全球主教,也应当常常服从教宗,听从命令,团结一致”(一四)。
假定这辈圣职人员 所受祝圣主教典礼为有效,他们日后所行的神品权,虽然有效,但都为违法渎圣的罪行,我们神圣导师耶稣昔日所说的话,今日恰好作这辈人士的训责:“谁不由门 进入羊栈,而由别处爬进去,那人便是贼,是强盗”(一五)。羊只认得自己真牧童的呼声,“至于陌生人他们决不跟随反而逃避他,因为他们不认得陌生人的声 音。”(一六)。
我们不是不知道,这辈违命的人士,为辩护自己篡夺职位合情合理,能援用古时的成例。但是大家都知道,假使 在每事上,人人可以任意援用已经失效的成例——因为圣座已另有规定——圣教会的纪律将何在?而且援用失效的成例以作辩护,更足以证明他们有心故意逃避现行 的法律,不愿遵守应守的法规。圣教会的现行法律,不仅是实行于中国或新开教的地区,而是实行于全教会的;因为圣教会的现行法是由教会至高无上的权威,即我 等主耶稣所授予圣伯多禄继任者的牧养,管理,和统治权所规定的。梵蒂冈公议会曾隆重地规定说:“根据圣经上显明的证据,按照历代教宗和迭次公议会的确定和 明文的法令,我们重新声明佛罗棱斯公议会的议决案:”一切信友都应当信圣座和罗马教宗在全球上握有“首席职权”又当信教宗为宗徒之长圣伯多禄的继任人,为 基督的真正代权,为全圣教会的元首,为一切信友的公父和导师。我等主耶稣曾藉伯多禄教授予他的继位人牧养,管理,和统治整个教会的全权“。……因 此,我们再训告,并再声明,罗马教区,按照救世主的意旨,对于其余一切教区,具有”首席职权”的正权利。罗马教宗的统治权力,对于全教会为直接性的主教权 利,凡是主教,神父,信友,不分礼仪派别,不分爵位高低,不分私人团体,都有服从教宗统治的义务。不仅在关系信仰和伦理道德的事务上,而且在一切有关全球 教会的纪律和统治上,都应真心服从教宗,真正有圣统制的从属。这样,每人每区,与罗马教宗保持了一致的联系,一致的信仰,基督的教会乃成为唯一的羊栈,从 属唯一的最高司牧。这项真理为圣教会所定的真理,谁若拒受,便要丧失信德,不得获救“(一七)。
从上述的理论里自然就得出 了一个结论:除罗马教宗的正权利外,没有任何他种权利,可以撤免一位得有正式任命的主教;没有任何人,或任何神父,教友的会议,可以自称具有选任主教之 权;在没有接奉宗座的任命之先,无论谁也不能合法祝圣主教(一八)。所以违命祝圣主教,乃是危害圣教统一的大恶,圣座曾规定了”弃绝“(开除教籍)的重 罚。凡非法接受祝圣为主教,以及非法祝圣主教的主礼人,都在事成时,立时遭受“最特别保留于宗座之弃绝罚”(一九)。
照顾教友的假借口 
最后,有关假冒爱国的爱国会人员为自己辩护所说的:事实如此,是为了教区的主教出缺,应急需有人照管人灵的理由,我们应说什么呢?
第一:为照顾信友精神利益,不能使用违反教律的方法。第二:所谓的教区主教出缺,并非彼等为护已所设想的真正出缺,而是有些教区,本区的合法主教,或是 被驱逐,或是被禁锢,或是各方被阻,不能自由行使职权。此外,尚有一些教区,本区合法主教按照法规和圣座特殊颁发的指令,曾任命了合法的代理人;但这等代 理人又被拘禁,驱逐,革职。事情到了这步田地,谁不痛心!热心教务教区的合法主教遭受迫害,反而竟有乘着合法主教的痛苦境遇,设立了假主教,以替代他们的 职位;结果是颠覆了教会的圣统,反叛了罗马教宗的统治权。
甚至有些前进份子,竟胆敢将爱国会的人,按照原定的计划,所造成 的这种可痛可悲的景况,加罪于圣座;但人人皆知,圣座既受阻与中国各教区安全地自由通讯,无法在有需要之际及至今,仍无法取得选任适当候选人的相当认识。 其实,这种认识,无论是对你们本国,或者是对任何民族,都是极其紧要的。
加以激励并予以祝福 
可敬的神昆,可爱的神子们!因着有人在你们之中,传播谬论,因着有人在你们之中,制造分裂,我们在上面已说明了我们心中的忧焦,希望你们藉着你们公父的劝谕,蒙受光照,更形坚定因而能够保持不屈的精神,坚守完美的信德。仗此信德,我们万众一心,同获救恩。
情满于心,不尽欲言,我们可以掬情相告,我们和你们同忧同苦,患难与共。你们身心所受的物质和精神痛苦,日夜记在我们心头。我们特别怀念基督的义士们所受的痛苦,义士中还有些我们的主教神昆。我们将这些痛苦,联合全教会的祈祷和牺牲,亲手捧上祭坛,献于救主。
你们应坚定,应倚望救主,“应将你们的忧苦放在天主身上,他必照顾你们”(二十)。他必垂顾你们的愁苦忧虑,必悦纳你们的痛苦,也必悦纳你们的主教、神 父、修士、修女、以及信友们, 目覩敌人摧残教会的惨剧,在暗中所流出的血泪。一天,藉着中国在天之后圣母玛利亚的大能代祷,你们本国再见太平的日子到来,你们现在的苦泪,你们现在的痛 苦,以及古今的殉道圣人义血,将是那时教会兴盛的珍贵保证。
我们满怀希望,在天主的恩爱里,很亲切地颁赐你们并你们属下的信友宗座遐福,以祝望天上的恩惠,以保证我们特别的关怀。
教宗庇护第十二世
发自罗马圣伯多禄殿侧教宫,一九五八年六月二十九日圣伯多禄节日;登教宗位第二十年
(注:教宗庇护十二之名【原文】做“比约”。)
英文原文
AD APOSTOLORUM PRINCIPIS
ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XII 
ON COMMUNISM AND THE CHURCH IN CHINA
TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN AND BELOVED CHILDREN, 
THE ARCHBISHOPS, BISHIOPS, OTHER LOCAL ORDINARIES 
AND CLERGY AND PEOPLE OF CHINA 
IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE APOSTOLIC SEE
Venerable Brethren and Beloved Children, 
Greetings and Apostolic Benediction.
At the tomb of the Prince of the Apostles, in the majestic Vatican Basilica, Our immediate Predecessor of deathless memory, Pius XI, duly consecrated and raised to the fullness of the priesthood, as you well know, “the flowers and . . . latest buds of the Chinese episcopate.”[1]
2. On that solemn occasion he added these words: “You have come, Venerable Brethren, to visit Peter, and you have received from him the shepherd’s staff, with which to undertake your apostolic journeys and to gather together your sheep. It is Peter who with great love has embraced you who are in great part Our hope for the spread of the truth of the Gospel among your people.”[2]
3. The memory of that allocution comes to Our mind today, Venerable Brethren and dear children, as the Catholic Church in your fatherland is experiencing great suffering and loss. But the hope of our great Predecessor was not in vain, nor did it prove without effect, for new bands of shepherds and heralds of the Gospel have been joined to the first group of bishops whom Peter, living in his Successor, sent to feed those chosen flocks of the Lord.
4. New works and religious undertakings prospered among you despite many obstacles. We too shared that hope when later We had the pleasure of establishing the hierarchy in China and saw yet wider paths opening up for the spread of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ.
5. But, alas, after a few years the sky was overcast by storm clouds. On your Christian communities, many of which had been flourishing from times long past, there fell sad and sorrowful times. Missionaries, among whom were many archbishops and bishops noted for their apostolic zeal, and Our own Internuncio were driven from China, while bishops, priests, and religious men and women, together with many of the faithful, were cast into prison or incurred every kind of restraint and suffering.
6. On that occasion We raised Our voice in sorrow, and, in Our Encyclical of January 18, 1952, Cupimus imprimis,[3] rebuked the unjust attack. In that letter, for the sake of truth and conscious of Our duty, We declared that the Catholic Church is a stranger to no people on earth, much less hostile to any. With a mother’s anxiety, she embraces all peoples in impartial charity. She seeks no earthly advantage but employs what powers she possesses to attract the souls of all men to seek what is eternal. We also stated that missionaries promote the interest of no particular nation; they come from every quarter of the earth and are united by a single love, God, and thus they seek and hope for nothing else save the spread of God’s kingdom. Thus, it is clear that their work is neither without purpose nor harmful, but beneficent and necessary since it aids Chinese priests in their Christian apostolate.
7. And some two years later, October 7, 1954, another Encyclical Letter was addressed to you, beginning Ad Sinarum gentem,[4] in which We refuted accusations made against Catholics in China. We openly declared that Catholics yielded to none (nor could they do so) in their true loyalty and love of their native country. Seeing also that there was being spread among you the doctrine of the so-called “three autonomies,” We warned – by virtue of that universal teaching authority which We exercise by divine command – that this same doctrine as understood by its authors, whether in theory or in its consequences, cannot receive the approval of a Catholic, since it turns minds away from the essential unity of the Church.
8. In these days, however, We have to draw attention to the fact that the Church in your lands in recent years has been brought to still worse straits. In the midst of so many great sorrows it brings Us great comfort to note that in the daily attacks which you have met neither unflinching faith nor the most ardent love of the Divine Redeemer and of His Church has been wanting. You have borne witness to this faith and love in innumerable ways, of which only a small part is known to men, but for all of which you will someday receive an eternal reward from God.
9. Nevertheless We regard it as Our duty to declare openly, with a heart filled to its depths with sorrow and anxiety, that affairs in China are, by deceit and cunning endeavor, changing so much for the worse that the false doctrine already condemned by Us seems to be approaching its final stages and to be causing its most serious damage.
10. For by particularly subtle activity an association has been created among you to which has been attached the title of “patriotic,” and Catholics are being forced by every means to take part in it. This association – as has often been proclaimed – was formed ostensibly to join the clergy and the faithful in love of their religion and their country, with these objectives in view: that they might foster patriotic sentiments; that they might advance the cause of international peace; that they might accept that species of socialism which has been introduced among you and, having accepted it, support and spread it; that, finally, they might actively cooperate with civil authorities in defending what they describe as political and religious freedom. And yet – despite these sweeping generalizations about defense of peace and the fatherland, which can certainly deceive the unsuspecting – it is perfectly clear that this association is simply an attempt to execute certain well defined and ruinous policies.
11. For under an appearance of patriotism, which in reality is just a fraud, this association aims primarily at making Catholics gradually embrace the tenets of atheistic materialism, by which God Himself is denied and religious principles are rejected.
12. Under the guise of defending peace the same association receives and spreads false rumors and accusations by which many of the clergy, including venerable bishops and even the Holy See itself, are claimed to admit to and promote schemes for earthly domination or to give ready and willing consent to exploitation of the people, as if they, with preconceived opinions, are acting with hostile intent against the Chinese nation.
13. While they declare that it is essential that every kind of freedom exist in religious matters and that this makes mutual relations between the ecclesiastical and civil powers easier, this association in reality aims at setting aside and neglecting the rights of the Church and effecting its complete subjection to civil authorities.
14. Hence all its members are forced to approve those unjust prescriptions by which missionaries are cast into exile, and by which bishops, priests, religious men, nuns, and the faithful in considerable numbers are thrust into prison; to consent to those measures by which the jurisdiction of many legitimate pastors is persistently obstructed; to defend wicked principles totally opposed to the unity, universality, and hierarchical constitution of the Church; to admit those first steps by which the clergy and faithful are undermined in the obedience due to legitimate bishops; and to separate Catholic communities from the Apostolic See.
15. In order to spread these wicked principles more efficiently and to fix them in everyone’s mind, this association – which, as We have said, boasts of its patriotism – uses a variety of means including violence and oppression, numerous lengthy publications, and group meetings and congresses.
16. In these meetings, the unwilling are forced to take part by incitement, threats, and deceit. If any bold spirit strives to defend truth, his voice is easily smothered and overcome and he is branded with a mark of infamy as an enemy of his native land and of the new society.
17. There should also be noted those courses of instruction by which pupils are forced to imbibe and embrace this false doctrine. Priests, religious men and women, ecclesiastical students, and faithful of all ages are forced to attend these courses. An almost endless series of lectures and discussions, lasting for weeks and months, so weaken and benumb the strength of mind and will that by a kind of psychic coercion an assent is extracted which contains almost no human element, an assent which is not freely asked for as should be the case.
18. In addition to these there are the methods by which minds are upset – by every device, in private and in public, by traps, deceits, grave fear, by so-called forced confessions, by custody in a place where citizens are forcibly “reeducated,” and those “Peoples’ Courts” to which even venerable bishops are ignominiously dragged for trial.
19. Against methods of acting such as these, which violate the principal rights of the human person and trample on the sacred liberty of the sons of God, all Christians from every part of the world, indeed all men of good sense cannot refrain from raising their voices with Us in real horror and from uttering a protest deploring the deranged conscience of their fellow men.
20. And since these crimes are being committed under the guise of patriotism, We consider it Our duty to remind everyone once again of the Church’s teaching on this subject.
21. For the Church exhorts and encourages Catholics to love their country with sincere and strong love, to give due obedience in accord with natural and positive divine law to those who hold public office, to give them active and ready assistance for the promotion of those undertakings by which their native land can in peace and order daily achieve greater prosperity and further true development.
22. The Church has always impressed on the minds of her children that declaration of the Divine Redeemer: “Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s.”[5] We call it a declaration because these words make certain and incontestable the principle that Christianity never opposes or obstructs what is truly useful or advantageous to a country.
23. However, if Christians are bound in conscience to render to Caesar (that is, to human authority) what belongs to Caesar, then Caesar likewise, or those who control the state, cannot exact obedience when they would be usurping God’s rights or forcing Christians either to act at variance with their religious duties or to sever themselves from the unity of the Church and its lawful hierarchy.
24. Under such circumstances, every Christian should cast aside all doubt and calmly and firmly repeat the words with which Peter and the other Apostles answered the first persecutors of the Church: “We must obey God rather than men.”[6]
25. With emphatic insistence, those who promote the interests of this association which claims a monopoly on patriotism, speak over and over again of peace and admonish Catholics earnestly to exert all their efforts to establish it. On the surface these words are excellent and righteous, for who deserves greater praise than the man who prepares the way to introduce and establish peace?
26. But peace – as you well know, Venerable Brethren and beloved sons – does not consist of words alone and does not rely on changing formulas which are suitable for the moment but contradict one’s real plans and practices, which do not conform with the meaning and way of true peace but with hatred, discord, and deceit.
27. Peace worthy of the name must be founded on the principles of charity and justice which He taught who is the “Prince of Peace,”[7] and who adopted this title as a kind of royal standard for Himself. True peace is that which the Church desires to be established: one that is stable, just, fair, and founded on right order; one which binds all together – citizens, families, and peoples – by the firm ties of the rights of the Supreme Lawgiver, and by the bonds of mutual fraternal love and cooperation.
28. As she looks forward to and hopes for this peaceful dwelling together of nations, the Church expects each nation to preserve that degree of dignity which becomes it. For the Church, which has ever kept a friendly attitude toward the various events in your country, long ago spoke through Our late Predecessor of happy memory and expressed the desire that “full recognition be given to the legitimate aspirations and rights of the nation, which is more populous than any other, whose civilization and culture go back to the earliest times, which has, in past ages, with the development of its resources, had periods of great prosperity, and which – it may be reasonably conjectured – will become even greater in the future ages, provided it pursues justice and honor.”[8]
29. On the other hand, as has been made known by radio and by the press, there are some – even among the ranks of the clergy – who do not shrink from casting suspicion on the Apostolic See and hint that it has evil designs toward your country.
30. Assuming false and unjust premises, they are not afraid to take a position which would confine within a narrow scope the supreme teaching authority of the Church, claiming that there are certain questions – such as those which concern social and economic matters – in which Catholics may ignore the teachings and the directives of this Apostolic See.
31. This opinion – it seems entirely unnecessary to demonstrate its existence – is utterly false and full of error because, as We declared a few years ago to a special meeting of Our Venerable Brethren in the episcopacy:
32. “The power of the Church is in no sense limited to so-called ‘strictly religious matters”; but the whole matter of the natural law, its institution, interpretation and application, in so far as the moral aspect is concerned, are within its power.
33. “By God’s appointment the observance of the natural law concerns the way by which man must strive toward his supernatural end. The Church shows the way and is the guide and guardian of men with respect to their supernatural end.”[9]
34. This truth had already been wisely explained by Our Predecessor St. Pius X in his Encyclical Letter Singulari quadam of September 24, 1912, in which he made this statement: “All actions of a Christian man so far as they are morally either good or bad – that is, so far as they agree with or are contrary to the natural and divine law – fall under the judgment and jurisdiction of the Church.”[10]
35. Moreover, even when those who arbitrarily set and defend these narrow limits profess a desire to obey the Roman Pontiff with regard to truths to be believed, and to observe what they call ecclesiastical directives, they proceed with such boldness that they refuse to obey the precise and definite prescriptions of the Holy See. They protest that these refer to political affairs because of a hidden meaning by the author, as if these prescriptions took their origin from some secret conspiracy against their own nation.
36. Here We must mention a symptom of this falling away from the Church. It is a very serious matter and fills Our heart – the heart of a Father and universal Pastor of the faithful – with a grief that defies description. For those who profess themselves most interested in the welfare of their country have for some considerable time been striving to disseminate among the people the position, devoid of all truth, that Catholics have the power of directly electing their bishops. To excuse this kind of election they allege a need to look after the good souls with all possible speed and to entrust the administration of dioceses to those pastors who, because they do not oppose the communist desires and political methods, are acceptable by the civil power.
37. We have heard that many such elections have been held contrary to all right and law and that, in addition, certain ecclesiastics have rashly dared to receive episcopal consecration, despite the public and severe warning which this Apostolic See gave those involved.
Since, therefore, such serious offenses against the discipline and unity of the Church are being committed, We must in conscience warn all that this is completely at variance with the teachings and principles on which rests the right order of the society divinely instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord.
38. For it has been clearly and expressly laid down in the canons that it pertains to the one Apostolic See to judge whether a person is fit for the dignity and burden of the episcopacy,[11] and that complete freedom in the nomination of bishops is the right of the Roman Pontiff.[12] But if, as happens at times, some persons or groups are permitted to participate in the selection of an episcopal candidate, this is lawful only if the Apostolic See has allowed it in express terms and in each particular case for clearly defined persons or groups, the conditions and circumstances being very plainly determined.
39. Granted this exception, it follows that bishops who have been neither named nor confirmed by the Apostolic See, but who, on the contrary, have been elected and consecrated in defiance of its express orders, enjoy no powers of teaching or of jurisdiction since jurisdiction passes to bishops only through the Roman Pontiff as We admonished in the Encyclical Letter Mystici Corporis in the following words: “. . . As far as his own diocese is concerned each (bishop) feeds the flock entrusted to him as a true shepherd and rules it in the name of Christ. Yet in exercising this office they are not altogether independent but are subordinate to the lawful authority of the Roman Pontiff, although enjoying ordinary power of jurisdiction which they receive directly from the same Supreme Pontiff.”[13]
40. And when We later addressed to you the letter Ad Sinarum gentem, We again referred to this teaching in these words: “The power of jurisdiction which is conferred directly by divine right on the Supreme Pontiff comes to bishops by that same right, but only through the successor of Peter, to whom not only the faithful but also all bishops are bound to be constantly subject and to adhere both by the reverence of obedience and by the bond of unity.”[14]

41. Acts requiring the power of Holy Orders which are performed by ecclesiastics of this kind, though they are valid as long as the consecration conferred on them was valid, are yet gravely illicit, that is, criminal and sacrilegious.
42. To such conduct the warning words of the Divine Teacher fittingly apply: “He who enters not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbs up another way, is a thief and a robber.”[15] The sheep indeed know the true shepherd’s voice. “But a stranger they will not follow, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers.”[16]
43. We are aware that those who thus belittle obedience in order to justify themselves with regard to those functions which they have unrighteously assumed, defend their position by recalling a usage which prevailed in ages past. Yet everyone sees that all ecclesiastical discipline is overthrown if it is in any way lawful for one to restore arrangements which are no longer valid because the supreme authority of the Church long ago decreed otherwise. In no sense do they excuse their way of acting by appealing to another custom, and they indisputably prove that they follow this line deliberately in order to escape from the discipline which now prevails and which they ought to be obeying.
44. We mean that discipline which has been established not only for China and the regions recently enlightened by the light of the Gospel, but for the whole Church, a discipline which takes its sanction from that universal and supreme power of caring for, ruling, and governing which our Lord granted to the successors in the office of St. Peter the Apostle.
45. Well known are the terms of Vatican Council’s solemn definition: “Relying on the open testimony of the Scriptures and abiding by the wise and clear decrees both of our predecessors, the Roman Pontiffs, and the general Councils, We renew the definition of the Ecumenical Council of Florence, by virtue of which all the faithful must believe that ‘the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff hold primacy over the whole world, and the Roman Pontiff himself is the Successor of the blessed Peter and continues to be the true Vicar of Christ and head of the whole Church, the father and teacher of all Christians, and to him is the blessed Peter our Lord Jesus Christ committed the full power of caring for, ruling and governing the Universal Church….’
46. “We teach, . . . We declare that the Roman Church by the Providence of God holds the primacy of ordinary power over all others, and that this power of jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff, which is truly episcopal, is immediate. Toward it, the pastors and the faithful of whatever rite and dignity, both individually and collectively, are bound by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, not only in matters which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which concern the discipline and government of the Church spread throughout the whole world, in such a way that once the unity of communion and the profession of the same Faith has been preserved with the Roman Pontiff, there is one flock of the Church of Christ under one supreme shepherd. This is the teaching of the Catholic truth from which no one can depart without loss of faith and salvation.”[17]
47. From what We have said, it follows that no authority whatsoever, save that which is proper to the Supreme Pastor, can render void the canonical appointment granted to any bishop; that no person or group, whether of priests or of laymen, can claim the right of nominating bishops; that no one can lawfully confer episcopal consecration unless he has received the mandate of the Apostolic See.[18]
48. Consequently, if consecration of this kind is being done contrary to all right and law, and by this crime the unity of the Church is being seriously attacked, an excommunication reserved specialissimo modo to the Apostolic See has been established which is automatically incurred by the consecrator and by anyone who has received consecration irresponsibly conferred.[19]
49. What then is to be the opinion concerning the excuse added by members of the association promoting false patriotism, that they had to act as they alleged because of the need to tend to the souls in those dioceses which were then without a bishop?
50. It is obvious that no thought is being taken of the spiritual good of the faithful if the Church’s laws are being violated, and further, there is no question of vacant sees, as they wish to argue in defense, but of episcopal sees whose legitimate rulers have been driven out or now languish in prison or are being obstructed in various ways from the free exercise of their power of jurisdiction. It must likewise be added that those clerics have been cast into prison, exiled, or removed by other means, whom the lawful ecclesiastical superiors had designated in accordance with canon law and the special powers received from the Apostolic See to act in their place in the government of the dioceses.
51. It is surely a matter for grief that while holy bishops noted for their zeal for souls are enduring so many trials, advantage is taken of their difficulties to establish false shepherds in their place so that the hierarchical order of the Church is overthrown and the authority of the Roman Pontiff is treacherously resisted.
52. And some have even become so arrogant that they blame the Apostolic See for these terrible and tragic events (which have certainly been deliberate accomplishments of the Church’s persecutors) even though everyone knows that the Church has been unable, in the past and at present, when such information has been needed, to obtain requisite data about qualified candidates for the episcopacy simply because she was prevented from communicating freely and safely with the dioceses of China.
53. Venerable brethren and dear children, thus far We have told you of the anxiety with which we are moved by the errors which certain men are trying to sow among you, and by the dissensions which are being aroused. Our intention is that, enlightened and strengthened by the encouragement of your common father, you may remain steadfast and without blemish in that faith by which We are united and by which alone We shall obtain salvation.
54. But now, following the ardent dictates of Our heart, We must tell you of the close and particular feelings of intimacy which draw Us near to you. To Our mind come those torments which rend asunder your bodies or your minds, particularly those which the most valiant witnesses of Christ are enduring, among whose number are several of Our Venerable Brethren in the episcopate. Daily at the altar We offer to the Divine Redeemer the trials of all of them, together with the prayers and sufferings of the whole Church.
55. Be constant then and put your trust in Him according to the words: “Cast all your anxiety upon Him, because He cares for you.”[20]
56. He sees clearly your anguish and your torments. He particularly finds acceptable the grief of soul and the tears which many of you, bishops and priests, religious and laymen, pour forth in secret when they behold the efforts of those who are striving to subvert the Christians among you. These tears, these bodily pains and tortures, the blood of the martyrs of past and present – all will bring it about that, through the powerful intervention of Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, Queen of China, the Church in your native land will at long last regain its strength and in a calmer age, happier days will shine upon it.
57. Relying on this hope, to you and to the flocks committed to your care We most lovingly grant in the Lord, as a token of divine gifts and a sign of Our special good will, Our Apostolic Benediction.
Given at St. Peter’s, in Rome, June 29th, the feast of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, in the year 1958, the 20th of Our Pontificate.
1. Acta Apostolicae Sedis 18 (1926) 432.
2. Ibid.
3. AAS 44 (1952) 153 and ff.
4. AAS 47 (1955) 5 ff.
5. Luke 20:25.
6. Acts 5:29.
7. Isaias 9:6.
8. Cfr. message of Pius XI to the Apostolic Delegate to China, Aug. 1, 1928: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 20 (1928) 245.
9. Address to Cardinals and Bishops, Nov. 2, 1954: AAS 46 (1954) 671-672. [Eng. tr.: TPS v. 1, no. 4, pp. 375 ff. – Ed.]
10. AAS 4(1912) 658.
11. Canon 331, sect. 3.
12. Canon 329, sect. 2.
13. Encyclical letter Mystici Corporis, June 29, 1943: AAS 35 (1943) 211-212.
14. Encyclical epistle Ad Sinarum gentem, Oct. 7, 1954: AAS 47 (1955) 9.
15. John 10:1.
16. John 10:4-5.
17. Vatican Council, session IV, chap. 3; Coll. Lac., Vll, p.484.
18. Canon 953.
19. Decree of Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, April 9, 1951: AAS 43 (1951) pp. 217-18.
20. I Peter 5:7.

拉丁文原文
PIUS PP. XII
LITTERAE ENCYCLICAE
AD APOSTOLORUM PRINCIPIS*
AD VENERABILES FRATRES AC DILECTOS FILIOS ARCHIEPISCOPOS, 
EPISCOPOS ALIOSQUE LOCORUM ORDINARIOS CETERUMQUE 
CLERUM AC POPULUM SINARUM, PACEM ET COMMUNIONEM 
CUM APOSTOLICA SEDE HABENTES :HORTAMENTA AC NORMAE 
IMPERTIUNTUR IN PRAESENTIBUS RERUM ANGUSTIIS.
VENERABILES FRATRES AC DILECTI FILII 
SALUTEM ET APOSTOLICAM BENEDICTIONEM
Ad Apostolorum principis sepulchrum, in Vaticanae Basilicae maiestate, proximus Decessor Noster imm. mem. Pius XI, duobus et triginta abhinc annis, ut probe notis, « Sinensis Episcopatus flores… et germina novella » (A. A. S. XVIII [1926], pag. 432) rite consecravit et ad sacerdotii plenitudinem evexit; eoque sollemni horae momento paterno ex animo haec edidit verba: « Venistis quidem, Venerabiles Fratres, videre Petrum, immo etiam ab eo pedum accepistis, quo ad apostolica obeunda itinera ad ovesque congregandas uteremini. Petrus autem est vos peramanter amplexus, qui evangelicae veritatis apud cives vestros proferendae spem facitis non exiguam » (ibid.).
Huius alloquii recordatio Nostrum hodie animum, subit, Venerabiles Fratres et dilecti filii; hodie dicimus, cum Catholica Ecclesia in patria vestra afflictis utitur condicionibus. Magni illius Decessoris Nostri spes certe haud irrita fuit, neque incassum cecidit; quandoquidem nova Sacrorum Pastorum et Evangelii praeconum agmina primo illi Episcoporum manipulo adiuncta sunt, quos Petrus, in Successore suo vivens, ad lectissimos illos Dei greges pascendos miserat; novaque religionis opera et incepta, quamvis non paucae obstarent difficultates, apud vos floruere. Nos autem, cum subinde non sine magno gaudio ecclesiasticam hierarchiam in Sinis constituimus, spem illam participavimus et adauximus, atque ampliora vidimus aperiri itinera divino Iesu Christi Regno propagando.
Sed, pro dolor, paucos post annos, procellosis nubibus coelum obscuratum est; vestrisque christianorum communitatibus, quorum nonnullae iam antiquitus florebant, tristia inciderunt tempora dolorumque piena. Missionales, in quibus erant Archiepiscopi et Episcopi multi apostolico studio praestantes, itemque Internuntium Nostrum vidimus e Sinarum terra abire coactos; sacros Antistites, sacerdotes, religiosos religiosasque sodales et christifideles multos vel in custodiae loca detrusos, vel rerum angustiis omneque genus aerumnis affectos.
Tum facere non potuimus quin, moerentem vocem attollentes Nostram, iniustam insectationem reprobaremus, Encyclica die XVIII mensis ianuarii, anno MCMLII data Epistula, cui a verbis Cupimus imprimis (A. A. S. XLIV [1952], pag. 153 sq.) initium est; qua quidem Epistula, pro ventate Nostrique officii conscientia monuimus Ecclesiam Catholicam a nullo terrarum orbis populo extraneam esse considerandam, nedum adversus quemquam hostilem; quin immo eam, materna tantum sollicitudine permotam, gentes omnes pari caritate amplecti, ac terrena non petere, sed ad caelestia assequenda civium omnium animos pro viribus adducere. Animadvertebamus praeterea Missionales nullius peculiaris nationis res gerere, sed, cum ex universis terrarum orbis partibus proficiscantur, et una divinaque caritate copulentur, nihil aliud exoptare et quaerere, nisi Dei Regni fines propagare; quamobrem patet eorum operam non supervacaneam esse, non noxiam, sed beneficam et necessariam, cum sollerti Sinensium clero adiutricem praestet opem in christiani apostolatus campo.
Ac duos circiter post annos, hoc est die VII mensis octobris, anno mcmLiv, alia ad vos missa Encyclica Epistula, quae a verbis incipit Ad Sinarum gentem (A. A. S. XLVII [1955] , pag. 5 sq.). ut incusationes refelleremus Sinensibus catholicis illatas, aperte pronuntiavimus christianos nullis prorsus cedere neque cedere posse in veri nominis fidelitate caritateque erga terrenam patriam. Et quandoquidem apud vos fallax propagabatur doctrina, quae a « Tribus Autonomiis » appellatur, Nos, pro universali quo divinitus fungimur magisterio, monuimus eandem doctrinam, prout ab eius fautoribus intellegitur, sive ad theoricam si: tificationem quod attinet, sive ad consectaria, quae inde oriuntur, a nullo catholico probari posse, cum a necessaria unitate Ecclesiae avertat animos.
In praesens autem animadvertendum Nobis est Ecclesiam apud vos his elapsis annis ad deteriores etiam condiciones adductam esse. Utique vobis — idque Nobis inter tot tantaque tristia magnum solacium affert — in diuturnis insectationibus, quibus affecti estis, fides intrepida non defuit, neque caritas flagrantissima erga Divinum Redemptorem eiusque Ecclesiam remisit; quam quidem intrepidam fidem et flagrantissimam caritatem paene innumeris modis testati estis, quorum si parva tantum pars innotuit hominibus, omnium tamen praemium aliquando a Deo accipietis aeternum.
Verumtamen Nostri officii esse ducimus aperte declarare, summa cum trepidi animi aegritudine, res in peius apud vos insidioso molimine adhuc declinare, ita ut videatur falsa illa et a Nobis reprobata doctrina ad extremos iam exitus extremaque detrimenta adduci.
Etenim, callida sane agendi ratione, consociatio quaedam apud vos constituta est, cui a caritate erga patriam nomen inditum est et ad quam participandam catholici omni nisu compelluntur.
Huius vero consociationis est — quod pluries enuntiatum est — clerum et christifideles patriae religionisque amore eo consilio coniungere, ut patriam caritatem propagent, ut pacem inter populos provehant itemque ut iam invectum apud vos socialismi ordinem comprobent atque instruendum dilatandumque curent, utque rei publicae moderatores adiuvent in politica et religiosa libertate, quam vocant, data opera, tuenda. Attamen liquido patet consociationem eiusmodi, generalibus hisce de pace patriaque tutanda effatis, quae simplices homines in errorem inducere possunt, ad praestituta quaedam ac detrimentosa consilia in usum deducenda contendere.
Etenim, specie patriae caritatis, quae reapse fallax demonstratur, huius generis consociatio eo potissimum spectat ut catholici gradatim « materialismi » athei commenta amplectantur, quibus Deus ipse renuitur, religionisque principia respuuntur.
Specie tuendae pacis eadem consociatio falsas suspiciones criminationesque recipit et propagat, quibus e cleri ordine multi, ac venerandi etiam Antistites et ipsa Apostolica Sedes incusantur, quasi insana proposita dominandi in res terrenas admittant ac foveant, quasi acquiescenti vel volenti animo dent operam ad quaestum f aciendum ex populo, quasi denique adversus Sinensium nationem oh praeiudicatas opiniones hostiliter se gerant.
Dum asseverant necessarium esse in religionis rebus libertatem omnimodis vigere, idque faciliores reddere mutuas inter ecclesiasticam et civilem potestatem rationes, revera tamen haec consociatio eo omnino spectat ut, sacris Ecclesiae iuribus posthabitis et neglectis, Ecclesia ipsa civilibus auctoritatibus subiugetur prorsus. Quam ad rem sodales omnes excitantur ut iniusta illa praescripta comprobent quibus Missionales eiciuntur extorres, et quibus Episcopi, sacerdotes, religiosi viri, sacrae virgines et christifideles non pauci detruduntur in carceres; itemque rationibus illis consentiant quibus tot legitimorum Pastorum iurisdictio pertinaciter praepeditur ; utque praeterea improbanda principia defendant, quae Ecclesiae unitati, catholicitati, et hierarchicae constitutioni omnino repugnant ; eaque incepta admittant, quibus cleri et christifidelium oboedientia, legitimis Antistitibus debita, subvertatur, atque catholicorum communitates ab Apostolica Sede disiungantur.
Quo autem expeditius haec nefasta principia propagentur omniumque inculcentur mentibus, haec consociatio, quae, ut diximus, patriae caritatis gloriatur nomine, variis opibus utitur, vi etiam et oppressione adhibita : hoc est scriptis prelo editis quam plurimis et quam loquacissimis; coetibus et congressibus, quos incitamentis, minis, atque fallaciis ii etiam participare coguntur, qui nolunt; et in quibus, si quis animosus veritatem tueri enititur, eius vox facile superatur et evincitur ; eique in f amiae nota nota inuritur utpote patriae novaeque societatis hosti.
Praeterea illa institutionis curricula memoranda sunt, quibus hanc fallacem doctrinam discipuli imbibere et amplecti coguntur ; et ad quae sacerdotes, religiosi religiosaeque sodales, sacri seminarii alumni, et cuiusvis ordinis, cuiusvis aetatis christifideles adeunda astringuntur ; in iisque paene infinitis continuisque praelectionibus ac disceptationibus, per hebdomades et per menses habitis, mentis voluntatisque vires ita debilitantur et attonantur, ut psychica quadam vi assensus talis, qui fere nihil iam humani habeat, arripiatur, non autem, ut addecet, libere postuletur. Huc accedunt illae agendi rationes, quibus modis omnibus, privatim, palam, per insidiam, per dolum gravemque metum animi perturbantur ; coactae « confessiones », quae dicuntur; custodiae loca, in quibus cives ad « novam educationem » amplectendam compelluntur; ac « popularia tribunalia » illa, ad quae iudicandi venerabiles etiam Episcopi ignominiose trahuntur.
Contra has agendi rationes, quae praecipua humanae personae iura violant, et sacram filiorum Dei libertatem proculcant, omnes ex quavis terrarum orbis parte christifideles, immo cordati omnes cohorrescentes facere non possunt quin una Nobiscum vocem attollant, qua laesam civium conscientiam deplorando conquerantur.
Et quandoquidem patriae caritatis nomine haec facinora perpetrantur, Nobis officium esse ducimus iterum in mentem revocare omnium, Ecclesiam ipsam doctrina sua catholicos adhortari et commonere, ut nationem cuiusque propriam sincero vehementique amore diligant, ut eos, qui publica auctoritate praesunt, salvo iure divino naturali et positivo, observent, utque adiutricem actuosamque operam praestent, qua incepta omnia provehantur, quibus patria communitas pacifice ordinateque prosperitatem cotidie auctiorem et vera suscipere incrementa queat. Numquam destitit Ecclesia suorum filiorum mentibus illud effatum inculcare, quod Divinus Redemptor edidit : « Reddite ergo quae sunt Caesaris Caesari, et quae sunt Dei Deo » (Luc. 20, 25); effatum dicimus, quod id ponit praeiudicatum et certum christianae religionis praecepta numquam veris patriae utilitatibus et commodis repugnare, numquam obstare posse.
Verumtamen asseverare etiam necesse est, si christiani ex officii conscientia debent Caesari, humanis nempe auctoritatibus, id reddere, quod ad easdem spectet, Caesarem quoque — hoc est eos qui publicae rei praesunt — obtemperationem civibus iubere non posse in iis rebus, quae ad Deum, non ad ipsos pertineant atque adeo non posse oboedientiam exigere, cum de usurpandis Dei iuribus agatur, vel cum christifideles a suis religionis officiis discrepare cogantur, et ab unitate Ecclesiae eiusque legitima hierarchia desciscere. Tum procul dubio singuli christiani serena fronte et firmissima voluntate ea verba repetant, quae Petrus ceterique Apostoli primis Ecclesiae insectatoribus responderunt : « Oboedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus » (Act. 5, 29).
Inflato quodam dicendi genere ii, qui consociationem istam fovent ac provehunt, quae patriae caritatis nomen quasi sibi proprium usurpat, de pace iterum iterumque loquuntur, et catholicos vehementer admonent ut ad eam omni ope statuendam allaborent. Quae verba specie quidem optima sunt et iustissima : quis enim magis dilaudetur quam is, qui paci instaurandae et stabiliendae iter paret? Pax tamen — quod probe nostris Venerabiles Fratres et dilecti filii — non verbis tantum innititur, non evanidis, quas temporum opportunitas suadeat, formulis utitur, a quibus incepta et gesta discordent, quae non ipsius pacis sensibus rationibusque conformentur, sed odio potius, discordia, simultateque animorum. Pax veri nominis iustitiae et caritatis principiis animetur oportet, quae Ille docuit « Princeps pacis » (Is. 9, 6), qui hoc titulo quasi regali insigni se ornavit; pax veri nominis ílla est, quam Ecclesia instaurandam exoptat, stabilem nempe, iustam, aequam, rectoque ordine compositam, quae cives, domesticos convictus ac populos — sartis tectisque uniuscuiusque imprimisque Supremi Numinis iuribus — mutui fraternique amoris et adiutricis operae vinculis coniungat omnes.
Hanc gentium omnium concordem convictionem pacifico prospiciens et exspectans animo, Ecclesia expetit, ut singulae nationes eum obtineant dignitatis gradum, qui eas addecet. Ecclesia enim, quae numquam non amicam intendit mentem in eventus casusque patriae vestrae, iam olim, per proximum Nostrum fel. rec. Decessorem locuta, exoptavit, ut « plane agnoscerentur desideria legitima et iura populi istius, numero maximi omnium, cuius humanus civilisque cultus ab antiquissima repetitur aetate, qui praeteritis saeculis, amplificatis rebus suis, interdum magnopere floruit, et quem futuris etiam temporibus plurimum valiturum esse conici licet, dummodo iustitiam et honestum persequatur » (cfr. nuntium a Pio XI Pont. Max. ad Delegatum Apostolicum in Sinis die i mensis augusti 1928 datum; A. A. S. XX [1928], pag. 245).
Contra, quemadmodum radiophonii ope et per typis edita scripta allatum est, non desunt ac quidem, pro dolor, etiam inter sacrorum administros, qui suspicionem in Sedem Apostolicam conferre audeant, eamque insimulare, quod patriae vestrae sit malevola.
Hoc sibi falso et iniuriose statuentes, non verentur imprimis auctoritatem supremi Ecclesiae Magisterii ad suum arbitrium intra artiores coercere fines, nonnullas quaestiones esse dictitantes, velut eas, quae in re sociali et oeconomica versentur, in quibus catholicis liceat doctrinas normasque ab hac Apostolica Sede impertitas praetermittere. Quae opinio — re vera supervacaneum esse videtur id confirmare — omnino falsa est plenaque erroris, quia, ut aliquot ante annos ad lectissimum Venerabilium Fratrum Episcoporum coetum diximus, « Ecclesiae potestas nequaquam “rerum stricte religiosarum”, uti loqui solent, finibus continetur, sed tota quoque legis naturalis materia, institutio, interpretatio, applicatio, quatenus moralis earum ratio attenditur, in eius sunt potestate. Observatio enim legis naturae ex Dei ordinatione spectat ad viam, qua homo ad finem suum supra naturam tendere debet. Iam vero Ecclesia est hac in via, ad finem quod attinet supra naturam, hominum dux et custos » (Sermo ad Patrum Cardinalium Collegium et Episcopatum die 2 mensis novembris anno 1954 habitus; cfr. A. A. S. XLVI [1954], pag. 671-672). Quam veritatem sapienter iam explanavit S. Pius X, Decessor Noster, Encyclicis Litteris Singulari quadam, die XXIV mensis septembris anno MDCCCCXII datis, in quibus asseveravit « omnes actiones eius (hominis christiani), quatenus bonae aut malae sunt in genere morum, id est cum iure naturali et divino congruunt aut discrepant, iudicio et iurisdictioni Ecclesiae subesse » (A. A. S. IV [1912], pag. 658).
Praeterea, finibus hisce artis ex arbitrio constitutis enuntiatisque, iidem, cum confiteantur verbis se Romano Pontifici parere velie quod ad veritates credendas et ad normas ecclesiasticas, uti appellant, servandas attineat, eo tamen procedunt audaciae, ut certis ac definitis Apostolicae Sedis praescriptis et ordinationibus oboedire recusent, quae simulata auctoris mente rem politicam spectare iactant, quasi ex occulta quadam coniuratione contra nationem ipsorum profecta.
Huius ab Ecclesia defectionis signum, rem sane gravissimam, quae animum Nostrum ut Patris et universalis fidelium Pastoris maestitia opplet inenarrabili atque ingenti, hoc loco memorare Nos oportet. li enim, qui patriae studiosissimos se ferunt, nonnihil iam temporis impense student in vulgus efferre mentitum ius, quo polleant catholici, sua sponte eligendi Episcopos, huiusmodi electioni praetendentes necessitatem consulendi qua par est cum festinatione bono animarum, ac regimen dioecesium iis credendi pastoribus, qui, utpote communistarum placitis eorumque artis politicae rationi non obsistentes, apud civiles potestates accepti sint.
Quin immo, non paucas huiusmodi electiones contra ius fasque iam habitas esse accepimus ac praeterea, negletto aperto severoque monito, quod Apostolica haec Sedes iis, ad quos pertineret, adhibuisset, episcopalem consecrationem nonnullis viris ecclesiasticis temerario ausu collatam esse.
Cum igitur tam gravia f acinora contra disciplinam et unitatem Ecclesiae committantur, omnes pro officii Nostri conscientia commonere debemus hoc a doctrina et a principiis prorsus discrepare, quibus conformatio Societatis a Iesu Christo Domino Nostro divinitus institutae innititur.
Sacris enim canonibus dilucide et expresse sancitum est, ut ad unam Sedem Apostolicam pertineat iudicare, num quis ad dignitatem et munus Episcopi idoneus sit (Can. 381 § 3), utque Romani Pontificis sit Episcopos libere nominare (Can. 329 § 2). Quodsi, quemadmodum interdum usu venit, aliis personis aut collegiis licet in electionem alicuius candidati episcopalis se aliquo modo interponere, hoc legitime dumtaxat fit, si Apostolica Sedes expressis verbis ac singillatim certis et definitis personis aut collegiis id concesserit, condicionibus rerumque adiunctis planissime constitutis. Hoc posito, efficitur, ut Episcopi nec nominati nec confirmati a Sede Apostolica, immo contra expressas eius ordinationes electi et consecrati, nulla fruantur potestate magisterii et iurisdictionis, cum iurisdictio Episcopis per unum Romanum Pontificem obtingat, quemadmodum in Litteris Encyclicis Mystici Corporis bisce verbis monuimus : « Sacrorum Antistites … ad propriam cuiusque Dioecesim quod spectat, utpote veri Pastores assignatos sibi greges singuli singulos Christi nomine pascunt ac regunt ; id tamen dum faciunt, non plane sui iuris sunt, sed sub debita Romani Pontificis auctoritate positi, quamvis ordinaria iurisdictionis potestate fruantur, immediate sibi ab eodem Pontifice Summo impertita » (Litt. Enc. Mystici Corporis, diei 20 mensis iunii 1943 ; A. A. S. XXXV [1943] , pag. 211-212 ). Quam doctrinam, datis postea ad vos Litteris Ad Sinarum gentem, iterum memoravimus : « Iurisdictionis potestas, quae Summo Pontifici iure ipso divino directe confertur, Episcopis ex eodem provenit iure, at nonnisi per Petri Successorem, cui quidem non tantum christifideles, sed Episcopi etiam omnes et oboedientiae obsequio et unitatis vinculo constanter subici et adhaerere tenentur » (Ep. Enc. Ad Sinarum Gentem, diei 7 mensis octobris 1954; A. A. S. XLVII [1955], pag. 9).
Actus vero, ad potestatem sacri Ordinis pertinentes, ab huiuscemodi viris ecclesiasticis patrati, etiamsi validi sunt, dummodo valida fuerit consecratio ipsis collata, sunt tamen graviter illiciti, id est flagitiosi et sacrilegi. Quam in rem peropportune cadunt monitoria verba Domini Magistri: « Qui non intrat per ostium in ovile ovium, sed ascendit aliunde, ille fur est et latro » (Io. 10, 1); veri quidem pastoris sui oves noscitant vocem, « alienum autem non sequuntur, sed fugiunt ab eo, quia non noverunt vocem alienorum » (ibid. 10, 5).
Nequaquam Nos latet, eos, qui ita detrectant oboedientiam, ut de iniuste sibi, pro dolor, sumptis muneribus semetipsos purgent, usum in medium proferre, qui prioribus saeculis invaluerit ; attamen non est qui non videat ecclesiasticam disciplinam praecipitem ire, si in qualibet re cuique liceat in usum reducere ordinationes, quae iam non vigeant, cum suprema Ecclesiae auctoritas iamdiu aliud decreverit. Quin etiam, eo quod ad aliam provocant disciplinam, minime de suo agendi modo se excusant, sed argumentum praebent, quo innotescit eos id segui, ut disciplinam, quae nunc viget et cui uni parere debent, consulto defugiant; disciplinam dicimus, quae non solum pro Sinis ac regioni- bus Evangelii lumine recens collustratis, sed pro tota constituta est Ecclesia; quae vi potestatis illius universalis et supremae pascendi, regendi, gubernandi sancita est, quam Dominus Noster Petri Apostoli in munere Successoribus tribuit. Pernota sunt ea, quae Concilium Vaticanum sollemniter definivit : « Apertis innixi sacrarum Litterarum testimoniis, et inhaerentes tum praedecessorum Nostrorum, Romanorum Pontificum, tum Conciliorum generalium disertis perspicuisque decretis, innovamus oecumenici Concilii Fiorentini definitionem, qua credendum ab omnibus Christi fidelibus est, “Sanctam Apostolicam Sedem, et Romanum Pontificem in universum orbem tenere primatum, et ipsum Pontificem Romanum successorem esse beati Petri, principis Apostolorum et verum Christi vicarium totiusque Ecclesiae caput et omnium christianorum patrem ac doctorem existere; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi ac gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Iesu Christo plenam potestatem traditam esse” … Docemus et declaramus, Ecclesiam Romanam, disponente Domino, super omnes alias ordinariae potestatis obtinere principatum, et hanc Romani Pontificis iurisdictionis potestatem, quae vere episcopalis est, immediatam esse : erga quam cuiuscumque ritus et dignitatis pastores atque fideles, tam seorsum singuli quam simul omnes, officio hierarchicae subordinationis veraeque oboedientiae obstringuntur, non solum in rebus, quae ad fidem et mores, sed etiam in iis, quae ad disciplinam et regimen Ecclesiae per totum orbem diffusae pertinent; ita ut, custodita cum Romano Pontifice tam communionis quam eiusdem fidei professionis unitate, Ecclesia Christi sit unus grex sub uno summo pastore. Haec est catholicae veritatis doctrina, a qua deviare salva fide atque salute nemo potest » (Conc. Vat., Sess. IV, cap. 3; Coll. Lac., VII, pag. 484).
Ex iis, quae exposuimus, sequitur, ut nulla prorsus auctoritas, praeter eam, quae Supremi Pastoris propria est, institutionem canonicam alicui Episcopo concessam possit irritam efficere; ut nulla persona nullusve coetus sive sacerdotum sive laicorum, ius sibi queat arrogare Episcopos nominandi; ut nemo consecrationem episcopalem valeat legitime conferre, nisi prius de pontificio mandato constiterit (Can. 953). Itaque, si huiusmodi consecratio contra ius fasque impertitur, quo facinore gravissime petitur ipsa unitas Ecclesiae, statuta est excommunicatio specialissimo modo Sedi Apostolicae reservata, in quam ipso facto incurrit qui consecrationem ex arbitrio collatam recipit, atque etiam consecrans ipse (cfr. Decretum Supr. S. Congr. S. Officii, diei 9 mensis aprilis 1951; A. A. S. XLIII [1951], pag. 217-2 18).
Quid denique sentiendum de causa a sodalibus consociationis patriae falso amore studentium interserta, quod sibi ita, quemadmodum perhibent, agendum sit propter necessitatem curae animarum prospiciendi iis in dioecesibus, quae praesente Episcopo suo orbatae sint?
Liquet imprimis spirituali commodo christifidelium nequaquam consuli, si leges Ecclesiae violantur ; deinde non agi, uti defendere volunt, de dioecesibus vacantibus, sed saepe de sedibus episcopalibus, quarum legitimi. Praesules aut deturbati sunt, aut in carcere tabescunt, aut variis modis praepediuntur, ne iurisdictionis potestatem libere exerceant; itidem praeterea, in carcerem dati sunt aut expulsi vel quovis modo remoti ii etiam viri ecclesiastici, quos legitimi Pastores e iuris canonici praescripto et e peculiaribus Apostolicae Sedis mandatis designaverant, ut in regendis dioecesibus ipsorum vice fungerentur.
Luctuosum sane quod, dum sacri Pastores, animarum studio praestantes tot sustinent aerumnas, ex eorum doloribus arripiatur occasio ut falsi pastores eorum in locum substituantur, ut hierarchicus Ecclesiae ordo evertatur, atque Romani Pontificis auctoritati seditiose obsistatur.
Atque eo nonnulli progressi sunt arrogantiae, ut culpam rerum tam miserarum tamque lacrimabilium, quae e certo consilio Ecclesiae vexatorum exortae sunt, in ipsam transferant Sedem Apostolicam, cum neminem fugiat hanc, eo quod impediatur quominus libere ac tuta cum Sinarum diocesibus communicet, non potuisse neque etiamnum posse, quotiescumque res postulet, aequa ratione de eligendis candidatis idoneis ad episcopalem dignitatem cognoscere ; quae cognitio omnino necessaria est, sive ad vestram attinet nationem sive ad quamvis aliam gentem.
Venerabiles Fratres ac dilecti filii! Hactenus vobis ediximus, quanta urgeamur sollicitudine propter errores, quos apud vos quidam inducere contendunt, ac discordias, quae concitantur, ut Patris communis illuminati et confirmati hortamento, intrepidi et intaminati, perstetis in fide, qua omnes coniungimur, qua una adipiscemur salutem.
Nunc autem, erumpentis animi impetum secutis enuntiare Nobis liceat, quam arta quamque singulari vos necessitudine attingamus. Obversantur menti Nostrae cruciatus, quibus sive corpora sive animi vestri divexantur, maxime ii, quos Christi testes fortissimi, tolerant; quorum in numero non desunt non- nulli Venerabiles Fratres Nostri in Episcopatu. Horum omnium aerumnas cotidie Nos Divino Redemptori in ara offerimus, una cum precibus ac doloribus totius Ecclesiae.
Firmi estote eique fidite secundum illud: « Omnem sollicitudinem vestram proicientes in eum, quoniam ipsi cura est de vobis » (I Petr. 5, 7). Ipse angores ac tormenta pervidet vestra; ipse imprimis animi maerorem acceptum habet et lacrimas, quas multi e vobis, tam Pastores quam sacerdotes, religiosi sodales et fideles e laicorum ordine, occulto effundunt, dum nisus aspiciunt eorum, qui coetus christianos vestros subvertere conantur. Hae lacrimae, hae affiictationes, una cum cruciatibus et sanguine Martyrum qui fuerunt et nunc sunt, veluti pretiosa pignora, efficient, ut Ecclesia in patria vestra potentissimo interposito patrocinio Deiparae Virginis Mariae, Sinarum Reginae, tandem aliquando revirescat, ac mitescente saeculo laetiores ei dies illucescant.
Hac spe erecti, cum vobis tum gregibus curae vestrae commissis Benedictionem Apostolicam, supernorum munerum auspicem ac peculiaris benevolentiae Nostrae testem, peramanter in Domino impertimus.
Datum Roma, apud S. Petrum, die XXIX mensis Iunii, in festo Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, anno MDCCCCLVIII, Pontificatus Nostri.
PIUS PP.XII
*Discorsi e Radiomessaggi di Sua Santità Pio XII, XX, 
Ventesimo anno di Pontificato, 2 marzo – 9 ottobre 1958, pp. 489-500
Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana
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作者: Domdionysius

罗马天主教徒,教名雅各·比约,奉行传统主义,追随圣庇护十世司铎会。幽燕独立运动发起者之一。

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